Prescription oral medical data


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Published human clinical studies

Gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonists for hirsutism references

* Bergfeld WF. Hirsutism in women. Effective therapy that is safe for long-term use. Postgrad Med. 2000 Jun;107(7):93-4, 99-104.
* Pazos F, Escobar-Morreale HF, Balsa J, Sancho JM, Varela C. Prospective randomized study comparing the long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist triptorelin, flutamide, and cyproterone acetate, used in combination with an oral contraceptive, in the treatment of hirsutism. Fertil Steril. 1999 Jan;71(1):122-8.
* Azziz R, Rittmaster RS, Fox LM, Bradley EL Jr, Potter HD, Boots LR. Role of the ovary in the adrenal androgen excess of hyperandrogenic women. Fertil Steril. 1998 May;69(5):851-9.
* Carmina E, Lobo RA. Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist therapy for hirsutism is as effective as high dose cyproterone acetate but results in a longer remission. Hum Reprod. 1997 Apr;12(4):663-6.
* Acien P, Mauri M, Gutierrez M. Clinical and hormonal effects of the combination gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist plus oral contraceptive pills containing ethinyl-oestradiol (EE) and cyproterone acetate (CPA) versus the EE-CPA pill alone on polycystic ovarian disease-related hyperandrogenisms. Hum Reprod. 1997 Mar;12(3):423-9.
* Heiner JS, Greendale GA, Kawakami AK, Lapolt PS, Fisher M, Young D, Judd HL. Comparison of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and a low dose oral contraceptive given alone or together in the treatment of hirsutism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 Dec;80(12):3412-8.
* Carmina E, Stanczyk FZ, Gentzchein E, Lobo RA. Time-dependent changes in serum 3 alpha-androstanediol glucuronide correlate with hirsutism scores after ovarian suppression. Gynecol Endocrinol. 1995 Sep;9(3):215-20.
* Elkind-Hirsch KE, Anania C, Mack M, Malinak R. Combination gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and oral contraceptive therapy improves treatment of hirsute women with ovarian hyperandrogenism. Fertil Steril. 1995 May;63(5):970-8.
* Carr BR, Breslau NA, Givens C, Byrd W, Barnett-Hamm C, Marshburn PB. Oral contraceptive pills, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, or use in combination for treatment of hirsutism: a clinical research center study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 Apr;80(4):1169-78.
* Lemay A, Faure N. Sequential estrogen-progestin addition to gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist suppression for the chronic treatment of ovarian hyperandrogenism: a pilot study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994 Dec;79(6):1716-22.
* Tiitinen A, Simberg N, Stenman UH, Ylikorkala O. Estrogen replacement does not potentiate gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist-induced androgen suppression in treatment of hirsutism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994 Aug;79(2):447-51.
* Carmina E, Janni A, Lobo RA. Physiological estrogen replacement may enhance the effectiveness of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in the treatment of hirsutism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994 Jan;78(1):126-30.
* Lee WL, Wang PH, Tseng HS, Lin HD, Yuan CC, Chao HT. Managing a patient with presumed testosterone-secreting ovarian tumor. Gynecol Oncol. 1999 Oct;75(1):175-7.
* Barnes RB, Ehrmann DA. Long-term suppression of testosterone after treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in a woman with a presumed testosterone secreting ovarian tumor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Jun;82(6):1746-8.
* Koroscil TM, Harter SB, Ouweleen J, Blauer KL. Use of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in the evaluation of postmenopausal virilization due to ovarian hyperthecosis. A case report. J Reprod Med. 1996 Apr;41(4):259-62.
* Falsetti L, Pasinetti E, Ceruti D. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-A) in hirsutism. Acta Eur Fertil. 1994 Sep-Oct;25(5):303-6.
* Goni M, Markussis V, Tolis G. Efficacy of chronic therapy with the gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist decapeptyl in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod. 1994 Jun;9(6):1048-52.
* Falsetti L, Pasinetti E. Treatment of moderate and severe hirsutism by gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and idiopathic hirsutism. Fertil Steril. 1994 May;61(5):817-22.
* Faloia E, Filipponi S, Mancini V, Morosini P, De Pirro R. Treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in acne or idiopathic hirsutism. J Endocrinol Invest. 1993 Oct;16(9):675-7.
* Hodgen GD. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists: emerging modification of treatment regimens. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Jun;3(3):352-7.
* Rittmaster RS. Differential suppression of testosterone and estradiol in hirsute women with the superactive gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist leuprolide. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988 Oct;67(4):651-5.
* Andreyko JL, Monroe SE, Jaffe RB. Treatment of hirsutism with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (nafarelin). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 Oct;63(4):854-9.
* Steingold KA, Judd HL, Nieberg RK, Lu JK, Chang RJ. Treatment of severe androgen excess due to ovarian hyperthecosis with a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1986 Jun;154(6):1241-8.

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Ketoconazole for hirsutism references

* Venturoli S, Marescalchi O, Colombo FM, Macrelli S, Ravaioli B, Bagnoli A, Paradisi R, Flamigni C. A prospective randomized trial comparing low dose flutamide, finasteride, ketoconazole, and cyproterone acetate-estrogen regimens in the treatment of hirsutism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Apr;84(4):1304-10.
* Isik AZ, Gokmen O, Zeyneloglu HB, Senoz S, Zorlu CG. Low dose ketoconazole is an effective and a relatively safe alternative in the treatment of hirsutism. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1996 Nov;36(4):487-9.
* Vidal-Puig AJ, Munoz-Torres M, Jodar-Gimeno E, Garcia-Calvente CJ, Lardelli P, Ruiz-Requena ME, Escobar-Jimenez F. Ketoconazole therapy: hormonal and clinical effects in non-tumoral hyperandrogenism. Eur J Endocrinol. 1994 Apr;130(4):333-8.
* Akalin S. Effects of ketoconazole in hirsute women. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1991 Jan;124(1):19-22.
* Conget JI, Halperin I, Ferrer J, Gonzalez-Clemente JM, Martinez-Osaba MJ, Vilardell E. Evaluation of clinical and hormonal effects in hirsute women treated with ketoconazole. J Endocrinol Invest. 1990 Dec;13(11):867-70.
* Venturoli S, Fabbri R, Dal Prato L, Mantovani B, Capelli M, Magrini O, Flamigni C. Ketoconazole therapy for women with acne and/or hirsutism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 Aug;71(2):335-9.
* Cedeno J, Mendoza SG, Velazquez E, Nucete H, Speirs J, Glueck CJ. Effect of ketoconazole on plasma sex hormones, lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins in hyperandrogenic women. Metabolism. 1990 May;39(5):511-7.
* Sonino N, Scaroni C, Biason A, Boscaro M, Mantero F. Low-dose ketoconazole treatment in hirsute women. J Endocrinol Invest. 1990 Jan;13(1):35-40.
* Weber MM, Luppa P, Engelhardt D. Inhibition of human adrenal androgen secretion by ketoconazole. Klin Wochenschr. 1989 Jul 17;67(14):707-12.
* Martikainen H, Heikkinen J, Ruokonen A, Kauppila A. Hormonal and clinical effects of ketoconazole in hirsute women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988 May;66(5):987-91.
* Or M, Akbatur H, Hasanerisoglu B, Bilgihan K, Cakir N. Ketoconazole induced papilledema. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh). 1993 Apr;71(2):270-2.
* Sonino N. Current trends in the endocrine use of ketoconazole. J Endocrinol Invest. 1988 Nov;11(10):741-4.
* De Pedrini P, Tommaselli A, Spano G, Montemurro G. Clinical and hormonal effects of ketoconazole on hirsutism in women. Int J Tissue React. 1988;10(3):193-8.
* Sonino N. The endocrine effects of ketoconazole. J Endocrinol Invest. 1986 Aug;9(4):341-7.
* Carvalho D, Pignatelli D, Resende C. Ketoconazole for hirsutism. Lancet. 1985 Sep 7;2(8454):560.

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Spironolactone for hirsutism references

* Spritzer PM, Lisboa KO, Mattiello S, Lhullier F. Spironolactone as a single agent for long-term therapy of hirsute patients. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2000 May;52(5):587-94.
* Erenus M, Yucelten D, Durmusoglu F, Gurbuz O. Comparison of finasteride versus spironolactone in the treatment of idiopathic hirsutism. Fertil Steril. 1997 Dec;68(6):1000-3.
* Erenus M, Yucelten D, Gurbuz O, Durmusoglu F, Pekin S. Comparison of spironolactone-oral contraceptive versus cyproterone acetate-estrogen regimens in the treatment of hirsutism. Fertil Steril. 1996 Aug;66(2):216-9.
* Wong IL, Morris RS, Chang L, Spahn MA, Stanczyk FZ, Lobo RA. A prospective randomized trial comparing finasteride to spironolactone in the treatment of hirsute women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 Jan;80(1):233-8.
* Crosby PD, Rittmaster RS. Predictors of clinical response in hirsute women treated with spironolactone. Fertil Steril. 1991 Jun;55(6):1076-81.
* Prezelj J, Kocijancic A, Andolsek L. Dexamethasone and spironolactone in the treatment of non-tumorous hyperandrogenism. Gynecol Endocrinol. 1989 Dec;3(4):281-8.
* Barth JH, Cherry CA, Wojnarowska F, Dawber RP. Spironolactone is an effective and well tolerated systemic antiandrogen therapy for Hirsute women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989 May;68(5):966-70.
* Helfer EL, Miller JL, Rose LI. Side-effects of spironolactone therapy in the hirsute woman. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988 Jan;66(1):208-11.
* Lunde O, Djoseland O. A comparative study of Aldactone and Diane in the treatment of hirsutism. J Steroid Biochem. 1987 Aug;28(2):161-5.
* Ylostalo P, Heikkinen J, Kauppila A, Pakarinen A, Jarvinen PA. Low-dose spironolactone in the treatment of female hirsutism. Int J Fertil. 1987 Jan-Feb;32(1):41-5.
* Pittaway DE, Maxson WS, Wentz AC. Spironolactone in combination drug therapy for unresponsive hirsutism. Fertil Steril. 1985 Jun;43(6):878-82.
* Cumming DC, Yang JC, Rebar RW, Yen SS. Treatment of hirsutism with spironolactone. JAMA. 1982 Mar 5;247(9):1295-8.
* Marcondes JA, Minanni SL, Luthold WW, Lerario AC, Nery M, Mendonca BB, Wajchenberg BL, Kirschner MA. The effects of spironolactone on testosterone fractions and sex-hormone binding globulin binding capacity in hirsute women. J Endocrinol Invest. 1995 Jun;18(6):431-5.
* McMullen GR, Van Herle AJ. Hirsutism and the effectiveness of spironolactone in its management. J Endocrinol Invest. 1993 Dec;16(11):925-32.
* Wild RA, Demers LM, Applebaum-Bowden D, Lenker R. Hirsutism: metabolic effects of two commonly used oral contraceptives and spironolactone. Contraception. 1991 Aug;44(2):113-24.
* Cumming DC. Use of spironolactone in treatment of hirsutism. Cleve Clin J Med. 1990 May;57(3):285-7.
* Hughes BR, Cunliffe WJ. Tolerance of spironolactone. Br J Dermatol. 1988 May;118(5):687-91.
* Board JA, Rosenberg SM, Smeltzer JS. Spironolactone and estrogen-progestin therapy for hirsutism. South Med J. 1987 Apr;80(4):483-6.
* Evans DJ, Burke CW. Spironolactone in the treatment of idiopathic hirsutism and the polycystic ovary syndrome. J R Soc Med. 1986 Aug;79(8):451-3.
* Tremblay RR. Treatment of hirsutism with spironolactone. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 May;15(2):363-71.
* Chapman MG, Katz M, Dowsett M, Hague W, Jeffcoate SL, Dewhurst CJ. Spironolactone in the treatment of hirsutism. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1986;65(4):349-50.
* Chapman MG, Dowsett M, Dewhurst CJ, Jeffcoate SL. Spironolactone in combination with an oral contraceptive: an alternative treatment for hirsutism. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1985 Sep;92(9):983-5.
* Thomas AK, Slobodniuk R, Taft J, Cooper M, Montalto J, Jerums G. The treatment of hirsutism: experience with cyproterone acetate and spironolactone. Australas J Dermatol. 1985 Apr;26(1):19-24.
* Lobo RA, Shoupe D, Serafini P, Brinton D, Horton R. The effects of two doses of spironolactone on serum androgens and anagen hair in hirsute women. Fertil Steril. 1985 Feb;43(2):200-5.
* Messina M, Manieri C, Biffignandi P, Massucchetti C, Novi RF, Molinatti GM. Antiandrogenic properties of spironolactone. Clinical trial in the management of female hirsutism. J Endocrinol Invest. 1983 Feb;6(1):23-7.
* Ross HD. Tumorigenic aspect of spironolactone. West J Med. 1981 Sep;135(3):244.
* Shapiro G, Evron S. A novel use of spironolactone: treatment of hirsutism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1980 Sep;51(3):429-32.
* Ober KP, Hennessy JF. Spironolactone therapy for hirsutism in a hyperandrogenic woman. Ann Intern Med. 1978 Nov;89(5 Pt 1):643-4.

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Cyproterone acetate for hirsutism references

* Tartagni M, Schonauer LM, De Salvia MA, Cicinelli E, De Pergola G, D’Addario V. Comparison of Diane 35 and Diane 35 plus finasteride in the treatment of hirsutism. Fertil Steril. 2000 Apr;73(4):718-23.
* Yucelten D, Erenus M, Gurbuz O, Durmusoglu F. Recurrence rate of hirsutism after 3 different antiandrogen therapies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999 Jul;41(1):64-8.
* Pazos F, Escobar-Morreale HF, Balsa J, Sancho JM, Varela C. Prospective randomized study comparing the long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist triptorelin, flutamide, and cyproterone acetate, used in combination with an oral contraceptive, in the treatment of hirsutism. Fertil Steril. 1999 Jan;71(1):122-8.
* Castelo-Branco C, Martinez de Osaba MJ, Pons F, Vanrell JA. Effects on bone mass of two oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol and cyproterone acetate or desogestrel: results of a 2-year follow-up. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 1998 Jun;3(2):79-84.
* Sahin Y, Bayram F, Kelestimur F, Muderris I. Comparison of cyproterone acetate plus ethinyl estradiol and finasteride in the treatment of hirsutism. J Endocrinol Invest. 1998 Jun;21(6):348-52.
* Venturoli S, Ravaioli B, Bagnoli A, Colombo FM, Macrelli S, Iadarola I, Vianello F, Mancini F, Flamigni C. Contraceptive and therapeutic effectiveness of two low-dose ethinylestradiol and cyproterone acetate regimens in the treatment of hirsute patients. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 1998 Mar;3(1):29-33.
* Kelestimur F, Sahin Y. Comparison of Diane 35 and Diane 35 plus spironolactone in the treatment of hirsutism. Fertil Steril. 1998 Jan;69(1):66-9.
* Gokmen O, Senoz S, Gulekli B, Isik AZ. Comparison of four different treatment regimes in hirsutism related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Gynecol Endocrinol. 1996 Aug;10(4):249-55.
* Erenus M, Yucelten D, Gurbuz O, Durmusoglu F, Pekin S. Comparison of spironolactone-oral contraceptive versus cyproterone acetate-estrogen regimens in the treatment of hirsutism. Fertil Steril. 1996 Aug;66(2):216-9.
* van Wayjen RG, van den Ende A. Experience in the long-term treatment of patients with hirsutism and/or acne with cyproterone acetate-containing preparations: efficacy, metabolic and endocrine effects. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1995;103(4):241-51.
* Barth JH, Cherry CA, Wojnarowska F, Dawber RP. Cyproterone acetate for severe hirsutism: results of a double-blind dose-ranging study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1991 Jul;35(1):5-10.
* Adamopoulos DA, Kampyli S, Georgiacodis F, Kapolla N, Abrahamian-Michalakis A. Effects of antiandrogen-estrogen treatment on sexual and endocrine parameters in hirsute women. Arch Sex Behav. 1988 Oct;17(5):421-9.
* Belisle S, Love EJ. Clinical efficacy and safety of cyproterone acetate in severe hirsutism: results of a multicentered Canadian study. Fertil Steril. 1986 Dec;46(6):1015-20.
* Galindo PA, Borja J, Feo F, Gomez E, Chamorro R, Encinas C, Garcia R. Fixed drug eruption caused by cyproterone acetate. Allergy. 1998 Aug;53(8):813.
* Similowski T, Orcel B, Derenne JP.CD8+ lymphocytic pneumonitis in a patient receiving cyproterone acetate. South Med J. 1997 Oct;90(10):1048-9.
* Hammerstein J, Moltz L, Schwartz U. Antiandrogens in the treatment of acne and hirsutism. J Steroid Biochem. 1983 Jul;19(1B):591-7.
* Hammerstein J, Cupceancu B. The treatment of hissutism with cyproterone acetate. Ger Med Mon. 1969 Dec;14(12):599-602.
* Hammerstein J, Cupceancu B. [Management of hirsutism using cyproterone acetate]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1969 Apr 18;94(16):829-34.

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Flutamide for hirsutism references

* Ibanez L, Potau N, Marcos MV, de Zegher F. Treatment of hirsutism, hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhea, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinism in nonobese, adolescent girls: effect of flutamide. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Sep;85(9):3251-5.
* Muderris II, Bayram F, Guven M. Treatment of hirsutism with lowest-dose flutamide (62.5 mg/day). Gynecol Endocrinol. 2000 Feb;14(1):38-41.
* Muderris II, Bayram F, Guven M. A prospective, randomized trial comparing flutamide (250 mg/d) and finasteride (5 mg/d) in the treatment of hirsutism. Fertil Steril. 2000 May;73(5):984-7.
* Moghetti P, Tosi F, Tosti A, Negri C, Misciali C, Perrone F, Caputo M, Muggeo M, Castello R. Comparison of spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride efficacy in the treatment of hirsutism: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jan;85(1):89-94.
* Paoletti AM, Cagnacci A, Orru M, Ajossa S, Guerriero S, Melis GB. Treatment with flutamide improves hyperinsulinemia in women with idiopathic hirsutism. Fertil Steril. 1999 Sep;72(3):448-53.
* Yucelten D, Erenus M, Gurbuz O, Durmusoglu F. Recurrence rate of hirsutism after 3 different antiandrogen therapies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999 Jul;41(1):64-8.
* Muderris II, Bayram F. Clinical efficacy of lower dose flutamide 125 mg/day in the treatment of hirsutism. J Endocrinol Invest. 1999 Mar;22(3):165-8.
* Venturoli S, Marescalchi O, Colombo FM, Macrelli S, Ravaioli B, Bagnoli A, Paradisi R, Flamigni C. A prospective randomized trial comparing low dose flutamide, finasteride, ketoconazole, and cyproterone acetate-estrogen regimens in the treatment of hirsutism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Apr;84(4):1304-10.
* Moghetti P, Castello R, Zamberlan N, Rossini M, Gatti D, Negri C, Tosi F, Muggeo M, Adami S. Spironolactone, but not flutamide, administration prevents bone loss in hyperandrogenic women treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Apr;84(4):1250-4.
* De Leo V, Lanzetta D, D’Antona D, la Marca A, Morgante G. Hormonal effects of flutamide in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Jan;83(1):99-102.
* Muderris II, Bayram F, Sahin Y, Kelestimur F. A comparison between two doses of flutamide (250 mg/d and 500 mg/d) in the treatment of hirsutism. Fertil Steril. 1997 Oct;68(4):644-7.
* Grigoriou O, Papadias C, Konidaris S, Antoniou G, Karakitsos P, Giannikos L. Comparison of flutamide and cyproterone acetate in the treatment of hirsutism: a randomized controlled trial. Gynecol Endocrinol. 1996 Apr;10(2):119-23.
* Andrade RJ, Lucena MI, Fernandez MC, Suarez F, Montero JL, Fraga E, Hidalgo F. Fulminant liver failure associated with flutamide therapy for hirsutism. Lancet. 1999 Mar 20;353(9157):983.
* Falsetti L, De Fusco D, Eleftheriou G, Rosina B. Treatment of hirsutism by finasteride and flutamide in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Gynecol Endocrinol. 1997 Aug;11(4):251-7.
* Muderris II, Bayram F, Sahin Y, Kelestimur F, Tutus A, Ayata D. The efficacy of 250 mg/day flutamide in the treatment of patients with hirsutism. Fertil Steril. 1996 Aug;66(2):220-2.
* Wysowski DK, Fourcroy JL. Flutamide hepatotoxicity. J Urol. 1996 Jan;155(1):209-12.
* Dodin S, Faure N, Cedrin I, Mechain C, Turcot-Lemay L, Guy J, Lemay A. Clinical efficacy and safety of low-dose flutamide alone and combined with an oral contraceptive for the treatment of idiopathic hirsutism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1995 Nov;43(5):575-82.
* Pucci E, Genazzani AD, Monzani F, Lippi F, Angelini F, Gargani M, Barletta D, Luisi M, Genazzani AR. Prolonged treatment of hirsutism with flutamide alone in patients affected by polycystic ovary syndrome. Gynecol Endocrinol. 1995 Sep;9(3):221-8.
* Erenus M. Efficacy of flutamide versus spironolactone. Fertil Steril. 1995 Mar;63(3):680.
* Ciotta L, Cianci A, Marletta E, Pisana L, Agliano A, Palumbo G. Treatment of hirsutism with flutamide and a low-dosage oral contraceptive in polycystic ovarian disease patients. Fertil Steril. 1994 Dec;62(6):1129-35.
* Wysowski DK, Fourcroy JL. Safety of flutamide? Fertil Steril. 1994 Nov;62(5):1089-90.
* Cesur V, Kamel N, Uysal AR, Erdogan G, Baskal N. The use of antiandrogen flutamide in the treatment of hirsutism. Endocr J. 1994 Oct;41(5):573-7.
* Howe RS, Chow RP, Stevens CL. Use of flutamide for self-induced androgen excess. A case report. J Reprod Med. 1994 Oct;39(10):838-40.
* Marugo M, Bernasconi D, Meozzi M, Del Monte P, Zino V, Primarolo P, Badaracco B. The use of flutamide in the management of hirsutism. J Endocrinol Invest. 1994 Mar;17(3):195-9.
* Cusan L, Dupont A, Gomez JL, Tremblay RR, Labrie F. Comparison of flutamide and spironolactone in the treatment of hirsutism: a randomized controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 1994 Feb;61(2):281-7.
* Wallace C, Lalor EA, Chik CL. Hepatotoxicity complicating flutamide treatment of hirsutism. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Dec 1;119(11):1150.
* Grimaldi F, Proto G, Bertolissi F. Flutamide–effects and side effects. Fertil Steril. 1993 Apr;59(4):937.

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Finasteride for hirsutism references

* Muderris II, Bayram F, Guven M. A prospective, randomized trial comparing flutamide (250 mg/d) and finasteride (5 mg/d) in the treatment of hirsutism. Fertil Steril. 2000 May;73(5):984-7.
* Tartagni M, Schonauer LM, De Salvia MA, Cicinelli E, De Pergola G, D’Addario V. Comparison of Diane 35 and Diane 35 plus finasteride in the treatment of hirsutism. Fertil Steril. 2000 Apr;73(4):718-23.
* Petrone A, Civitillo RM, Galante L, Giannotti F, D’Anto V, Rippa G, Tolino A. Usefulness of a 12-month treatment with finasteride in idiophathic and polycystic ovary syndrome-associated hirsutism. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 1999;26(3-4):213-6.
* Moghetti P, Tosi F, Tosti A, Negri C, Misciali C, Perrone F, Caputo M, Muggeo M, Castello R. Comparison of spironolactone, flutamide, and finasteride efficacy in the treatment of hirsutism: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jan;85(1):89-94.
* Falsetti L, Gambera A, Legrenzi L, Iacobello C, Bugari G. Comparison of finasteride versus flutamide in the treatment of hirsutism. Eur J Endocrinol. 1999 Oct;141(4):361-7.
* Bayram F, Muderris II, Sahin Y, Kelestimur F. Finasteride treatment for one year in 35 hirsute patients. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1999;107(3):195-7.
* Venturoli S, Marescalchi O, Colombo FM, Macrelli S, Ravaioli B, Bagnoli A, Paradisi R, Flamigni C. A prospective randomized trial comparing low dose flutamide, finasteride, ketoconazole, and cyproterone acetate-estrogen regimens in the treatment of hirsutism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Apr;84(4):1304-10.
* Fruzzetti F, Bersi C, Parrini D, Ricci C, Genazzani AR. Treatment of hirsutism: comparisons between different antiandrogens with central and peripheral effects. Fertil Steril. 1999 Mar;71(3):445-51.
* Faloia E, Filipponi S, Mancini V, Di Marco S, Mantero F. Effect of finasteride in idiopathic hirsutism. J Endocrinol Invest. 1998 Nov;21(10):694-8.
* Erenus M, Yucelten D, Durmusoglu F, Gurbuz O. Comparison of finasteride versus spironolactone in the treatment of idiopathic hirsutism. Fertil Steril. 1997 Dec;68(6):1000-3.
* Guarna A, Belle C, Machetti F, Occhiato EG, Payne AH, Cassiani C, Comerci A, Danza G, De Bellis A, Dini S, Marrucci A, Serio M. 19-nor-10-azasteroids: a novel class of inhibitors for human steroid 5alpha-reductases 1 and 2. J Med Chem. 1997 Mar 28;40(7):1112-29.
* Castello R, Tosi F, Perrone F, Negri C, Muggeo M, Moghetti P. Outcome of long-term treatment with the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride in idiopathic hirsutism: clinical and hormonal effects during a 1-year course of therapy and 1-year follow-up. Fertil Steril. 1996 Nov;66(5):734-40.
* Tolino A, Petrone A, Sarnacchiaro F, Cirillo D, Ronsini S, Lombardi G, Nappi C. s Finasteride in the treatment of hirsutism: new therapeutic perspectives. Fertil Steril. 1996 Jul;66(1):61-5.
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