Title: Trichiasis and distichiasis; with an improved method for radical treatment
Authors: Michel CE
Journal: St. Louis Clinical Record, 1875 Oct; 2:145-148
This is the first published clinical report of permanent hair removal with electrolysis.
Dr. Charles Michel, a St. Louis ophthalmologist, devised electrolysis to treat ingrown eyelashes. He reports, "In 1869, I devised and had made a delicate electro-cautery, with which I propose destroying the follicle and the hair papilla."
He used galvanic current with a gold needle. Galvanic electrolysis performed today operates on the same principles and with the same results, although machines now use modified current from a wall outlet and have gauges to measure and regulate intensity.